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Synthesis of Molecular Probes for One-electron Reduction

Synthesis of Molecular Probes for One-electron Reduction PDF Author: Smerah Ayde Alharthi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
Book Description
Controlled drug release plays an important role in medicine because it can be a factor in human health care. It is defined as the ability to release a drug inside the body at a specific time. Radiation-sensitive functionalized materials can be controlled by outside triggers such as radiation and have great potential for application in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Radiation-sensitive functional groups are known and studied, however, there are very few examples. Previous studies have revealed that 2-oxoalkyl group can successfully undergo radiolytic cleavage, but under relatively high doses of radiation. It is desirable that the radiolysis efficiency of 2-oxoalkyl group be improved in order to gain applications in clinical medicine. Thus, one objective of this thesis was to study the effect of a few substituents on the radiolysis efficiency of substituted 2-oxoalkyl groups. Therefore, a few molecular probes that contain an aryl 2-oxoalkyl group with substituted acetophenone of monoesters of adipic acid, and coumarin scaffold of monoesters of adipic acid have been successfully synthesized. These compounds were studied under X-ray radiation at various doses to assess the potential of selective cleavage of the aryl oxo-methyl ester linkage. The radiolysis studies showed that less than 10% of the ester linkages in these compounds were degraded under a dose of up to 20 Gy of radiation. Compounds were also studied for their hydrolytic rate for the aryl oxomethyl ester linkage using TLC method. Hydrolysis at around neutral pH happened at a slower rate for compounds that are sterically more hindered at the oxo-methyl position. Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) is a natural polypeptide that is biodegradable and biocompatible. Therefore, it has been exploited as drug carrier system. In this thesis, PGA has been modified with a phenacyl group. The lipophilic phenacyl group is assumed to assist the formation of nanoparticles for the modified PGA. Radiolysis studies of such modified PGA showed that the grafted phenacyl group can be selectively cleaved upon radiation with a clinically relevant dose. Lawsone is a commercially available natural product. It has been used as starting material for the synthesis of different biologically active compounds. Lawsone also has various biological effects including anticancer activity. One anticancer mechanism of lawsone is associated with its ability to undergo one-electron reduction. Thus, another aspect of this thesis was to synthesize lawsone derivatives as potential anticancer agents. The preparation of glycosylated lawsone derivatives was of particularly interest. Direct glycosylation of lawsone using a number of methods was unsuccessful in providing fully deprotected lawsone glycosides. Then the Mannich reaction was employed to produce a group of lawsone derivatives including one compound bearing a glucose residue. The synthesized lawsone derivatives will be evaluated for anticancer activity in the future work.

Synthesis of Molecular Probes for One-electron Reduction

Synthesis of Molecular Probes for One-electron Reduction PDF Author: Smerah Ayde Alharthi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
Book Description
Controlled drug release plays an important role in medicine because it can be a factor in human health care. It is defined as the ability to release a drug inside the body at a specific time. Radiation-sensitive functionalized materials can be controlled by outside triggers such as radiation and have great potential for application in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Radiation-sensitive functional groups are known and studied, however, there are very few examples. Previous studies have revealed that 2-oxoalkyl group can successfully undergo radiolytic cleavage, but under relatively high doses of radiation. It is desirable that the radiolysis efficiency of 2-oxoalkyl group be improved in order to gain applications in clinical medicine. Thus, one objective of this thesis was to study the effect of a few substituents on the radiolysis efficiency of substituted 2-oxoalkyl groups. Therefore, a few molecular probes that contain an aryl 2-oxoalkyl group with substituted acetophenone of monoesters of adipic acid, and coumarin scaffold of monoesters of adipic acid have been successfully synthesized. These compounds were studied under X-ray radiation at various doses to assess the potential of selective cleavage of the aryl oxo-methyl ester linkage. The radiolysis studies showed that less than 10% of the ester linkages in these compounds were degraded under a dose of up to 20 Gy of radiation. Compounds were also studied for their hydrolytic rate for the aryl oxomethyl ester linkage using TLC method. Hydrolysis at around neutral pH happened at a slower rate for compounds that are sterically more hindered at the oxo-methyl position. Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) is a natural polypeptide that is biodegradable and biocompatible. Therefore, it has been exploited as drug carrier system. In this thesis, PGA has been modified with a phenacyl group. The lipophilic phenacyl group is assumed to assist the formation of nanoparticles for the modified PGA. Radiolysis studies of such modified PGA showed that the grafted phenacyl group can be selectively cleaved upon radiation with a clinically relevant dose. Lawsone is a commercially available natural product. It has been used as starting material for the synthesis of different biologically active compounds. Lawsone also has various biological effects including anticancer activity. One anticancer mechanism of lawsone is associated with its ability to undergo one-electron reduction. Thus, another aspect of this thesis was to synthesize lawsone derivatives as potential anticancer agents. The preparation of glycosylated lawsone derivatives was of particularly interest. Direct glycosylation of lawsone using a number of methods was unsuccessful in providing fully deprotected lawsone glycosides. Then the Mannich reaction was employed to produce a group of lawsone derivatives including one compound bearing a glucose residue. The synthesized lawsone derivatives will be evaluated for anticancer activity in the future work.

Nitroxides

Nitroxides PDF Author: Olivier Ouari
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1788019660
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 592
Book Description
Nitroxides are versatile small organic molecules possessing a stabilised free radical. With their unpaired electron spin they display a unique reactivity towards various environmental factors, enabling a diverse range of applications. They have uses as synthetic tools, such as catalysts or building blocks; imaging agents and probes in biomedicine and materials science; for medicinal antioxidant applications; and in energy storage. Polynitroxides (polymers bearing pendant nitroxide sidechains) have been used in organic radical batteries, oxidation catalysts and in exchange reactions for constructing complex architectures. Chapters in this book cover the synthesis of nitroxides, EPR studies and magnetic resonance applications, physiochemical studies, and applications including in batteries, imaging and organic synthesis. With contributions from leaders in the field, Nitroxides will be of interest to graduate students and researchers across chemistry, physics, biology and materials science.

Electron Spin Resonance

Electron Spin Resonance PDF Author:
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847553451
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 210
Book Description
Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth accounts of progress in particular areas of chemistry. For over 80 years the Royal Society of Chemistry and its predecessor, the Chemical Society, have been publishing reports charting developments in chemistry, which originally took the form of Annual Reports. However, by 1967 the whole spectrum of chemistry could no longer be contained within one volume and the series Specialist Periodical Reports was born. The Annual Reports themselves still existed but were divided into two, and subsequently three, volumes covering Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry. For more general coverage of the highlights in chemistry they remain a 'must'. Since that time the SPR series has altered according to the fluctuating degree of activity in various fields of chemistry. Some titles have remained unchanged, while others have altered their emphasis along with their titles; some have been combined under a new name whereas others have had to be discontinued. The current list of Specialist Periodical Reports can be seen on the inside flap of this volume.

Electron Spin Resonance

Electron Spin Resonance PDF Author: M. C. R. Symons
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 0851868614
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 210
Book Description
Reflecting the growing volume of published work in this field, researchers will find this book an invaluable source of information on current methods and applications.

Synthetic Chemistry of Stable Nitroxides

Synthetic Chemistry of Stable Nitroxides PDF Author: L. B. Volodarsky
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351357417
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 236
Book Description
This important book is devoted to covering the synthetic aspects of nitroxide chemistry. The problems of application and physicochemical properties of nitroxides are considered in the context of the choice of necessary radical structures, convenient precursors, and strategy of the synthesis. The book offers comparisons of the concrete classes of nitroxides to help reveal the structural peculiarities and synthetic abilities of compounds of different classes. It also summarizes data on the magneto-structural correlation for the metal complexes with 3-imidazoline nitroxides and considers the ways in which the molecular design of 2- and 3-dimensional heterospin compounds is capable of magnetic phase transfer in a ferromagnetic state. The book will be a significant reference for chemists, biochemists, spectroscopists, and other users of nitroxides, spin labels, probes, and paramagnetic ligands.

Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication

Inorganic Materials Synthesis and Fabrication PDF Author: John N. Lalena
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470191569
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 312
Book Description
This up-to-date, single-source reference on the preparation of single-phase inorganic materials covers the most important methods and techniques in solid-state synthesis and materials fabrication. Presenting both fundamental background and advanced methodologies, it describes the principles of crystallography, thermodynamics, and kinetics required, addresses crystallographic and microstructural considerations, and describes various kinds of reactions. This is an excellent text for materials science and engineering, chemistry, and physics students, as well as a practical, hands-on reference for working professionals.

Subcellular Compartmentalization of Plant Antioxidants and ROS Generating Systems

Subcellular Compartmentalization of Plant Antioxidants and ROS Generating Systems PDF Author: Francisco J. Corpas
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889666328
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
Book Description


Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis

Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis PDF Author: Mario G. Clerici
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118356756
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 546
Book Description
Sets the stage for environmentally friendly industrialorganic syntheses From basic principles to new and emerging industrialapplications, this book offers comprehensive coverage ofheterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It fullyexamines the synthesis, characterization, and application ofcatalytic materials for environmentally friendly organic syntheses.Readers will find coverage of all the important classes ofcatalysts, with an emphasis on their stability and reusability. Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysisfeatures contributions from an international team of leadingchemists representing both industry and academia. The book beginswith a chapter on environmentally benign oxidants and thencovers: Selective oxidations catalyzed by TS-1 and othermetal-substituted zeolites Selective catalytic oxidation over ordered nanoporousmetallo-aluminophosphates Selective oxidations catalyzed by mesoporousmetal-silicates Liquid phase oxidation of organic compounds by supportedmetal-based catalysts Selective liquid phase oxidations in the presence of supportedpolyoxometalates Selective oxidations catalyzed by supported metalcomplexes Liquid phase oxidation of organic compounds by metal-organicframeworks Heterogeneous photocatalysis for selective oxidations withmolecular oxygen All the chapters dedicated to specific types of catalysts followa similar organization and structure, making it easy to compare theadvantages and disadvantages of different catalysts. The finalchapter examines the latest industrial applications, such as theproduction of catechol and hydroquinone, cyclohexanone oxime, andpropylene oxide. With its unique focus on liquid phase heterogeneous oxidationcatalysis, this book enables researchers in organic synthesis andoxidation catalysis to explore and develop promising new catalyticmaterials and synthetic routes for a broad range of industrialapplications.

New Frontiers in Ultrasensitive Bioanalysis

New Frontiers in Ultrasensitive Bioanalysis PDF Author: Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470119495
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 400
Book Description
An overview of current research and developments in ultrasensitive bioanalysis New platforms of ultrasensitive analysis of biomolecules and single living cells using multiplexing, single nanoparticle sensing, nano-fluidics, and single-molecule detection are advancing every scientific discipline at an unprecedented pace. With chapters written by a diverse group of scientists working in the forefront of ultrasensitive bioanalysis, this book provides an overview of the current status and an in-depth understanding of the objectives and future research directions of ultrasensitive bioanalysis. Spanning a wide spectrum of new research approaches, this book: Introduces new theories, ideas, methodologies, technologies, and applications of ultrasensitive bioanalysis in a wide variety of research fields Includes background, fundamentals, and descriptions of instrumentation and techniques behind every experimental design and approach to help readers explore the promising applications of new tools Covers single molecule detection (SMD), single living cell analysis, multi-functional nanoparticle probes, miniaturization, multiplexing, quantitative and qualitative analysis of metal ions and small molecules, and more Discusses techniques such as single molecule microscope and spectroscopy, single nanoparticle optics, single nanoparticle sensors, micro- and nano-fluidics, microarray detection, ultramicroelectrodes, electrochemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, and more This book will be a useful resource and an inspiration for scientists and graduate and undergraduate students in a wide variety of research fields, including chemistry, biology, biomedical science and engineering, and materials science and engineering.

Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry of Natural Products and Their Model Compounds

Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry of Natural Products and Their Model Compounds PDF Author: Jurgen-Hinrich Fuhrhop
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824782016
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 608
Book Description
An assessment of the known properties of natural products and their model compounds to determine their usefulness in biological and medical experimentation, as well as in synkinetics - the reversible synthesis of noncovalent compounds. It explores new techniques such as cryoelectron and scanning force microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of membrane systems. There are 500 figures and reaction schemes.